Since 2014, patients with severe treatment-resistant epilepsies (TREs) have been receiving add-on cannabidiol (CBD) in an ongoing, expanded access program (EAP), which closely reflects clinical practice. We conducted an interim analysis of long-term efficacy and tolerability in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) or Dravet syndrome (DS) who received CBD treatment through December 2016.
Children and adults with LGS/DS taking stable doses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at baseline were included from 25 EAP sites across the United States. During the 4-week baseline period, parents/caregivers kept diaries of all countable seizure types. Patients received a pharmaceutical formulation of highly purified CBD (Epidiolex®; 100 mg/mL) in oral solution at 2-10 mg/kg/day, titrated until tolerability limit or a maximum dose of 25-50 mg/kg/day. Patient visits were every 2-4 weeks. The percentage change from baseline in median monthly convulsive (ie, major motor) and total seizures was evaluated at 12-week intervals through 96 weeks. The percentages of patients who had ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reduction in monthly seizures relative to the baseline period were also evaluated. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored and summarized for the safety analysis set (SAS) through 144 weeks.
Of the 607 patients in the SAS, 58 had DS and 94 had LGS (N = 152); 455 patients had other TREs. Twenty-eight percent of LGS/DS patients withdrew, primarily owing to lack of efficacy (20%). LGS/DS patients were taking a median of 3 (0-10) concomitant AEDs. Median treatment duration was 78.3 (range, 4.1-146.4) weeks. Between weeks 12 and 96, median CBD dose ranged from 21 to 25 mg/kg/day. At 12 weeks, add-on CBD reduced median monthly major motor seizures by 50% and total seizures by 44%, with consistent reductions in both seizure types through 96 weeks. At 12 weeks, the proportions of patients with ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions in major motor seizures were 53%, 23%, and 6%; the proportions with corresponding reductions in total seizures were 46%, 26%, and 5%. Responder rates for both seizure types were consistent through 96 weeks. CBD had an acceptable safety profile; the most common AEs were somnolence (30%) and diarrhea (24%).
Results from this interim analysis support add-on CBD as an effective long-term treatment option in LGS or DS.