Chronic pain is common, costly, and challenging to treat. Many individuals with chronic pain have turned to cannabis as an alternative form of pain management. We report results from an ongoing, online survey of medical cannabis users with chronic pain nationwide about how cannabis affects pain management, health, and pain medication use. We also examined whether and how these parameters were affected by concomitant recreational use, and duration of use (novice: <1 year vs experienced: ≥1 year). There were 1,321 participants (59% female, 54% ≥50 years old) who completed the survey. Consistent with other observational studies, approximately 80% reported substituting cannabis for traditional pain medications (53% for opioids, 22% for benzodiazepines), citing fewer side effects and better symptom management as their rationale for doing so. Medical-only users were older (52 vs 47 years old; P < .0001), less likely to drink alcohol (66% vs 79%, P < .0001), and more likely to be currently taking opioids (21% vs 11%, P < .0001) than users with a combined recreational and medical history. Compared with novice users, experienced users were more likely to be male (64% vs 58%; P < .0001), take no concomitant pain medications (43% vs 30%), and report improved health (74% vs 67%; P = .004) with use. Given that chronic pain is the most common reason for obtaining a medical cannabis license, these results highlight clinically important differences among the changing population of medical cannabis users. More research is needed to better understand effective pain management regimens for medical cannabis users.